Video on Experimentation in science.
Experimentation is the investigation of the causal relationships among variables or the testing of a hypothesis.Experimentation is an important aspect of science, in fact it is science at its best.
Controlled Experimentation embodies the ideal of science. This is where the scientific method is at its best. It is also where scientific repeatability is at its best. The difficulty is that not all area of scientific study lend them selves to experiments. In fact most real world observations are beyond the possibility of a controlled experiment do to things like distance, size and time. In many case experiments can only be used to test the possibility of a hypothesis which is some times done in historical sciences. Trying to replicate a past event to show it could have happened.
The Ideal Experiment should reduce the number of variable to one and be easily repeated by other scientists to increases the likely hood that someone will try to repeat it. It also makes it more likely that the attempt to repeat it will succeed. It should also limit complexity and cost so as to increase the likely hood that someone will try to repeat it making it more likely that the attempt to repeat it will succeed.