Monday, October 31, 2011

The Manner in Which Creationists Use the Term Evolutionist Explained

Creationists have often use the term Evolution to refer to entire naturalistic view of origins that starts with the Big Bang and goes to Man. Creationists will also use the term Evolutionist to refer to proponents of the Big Bang to Man view of origins.

The way Creationist use the terms “Evolution” and “Evolutionist” has recently come under attack. The claim is that evolution only refers to biological evolution and that Creationists are ether ignorant or misrepresenting the term Evolution. It further claims that abiogenesis, planetary formation, stellar formation and the Big Bang are all independent disciplines unrelated to evolution.

Creationists fully understand that these are different disciplines nor is Evolution being misrepresent because it is wrong to claim that they are unrelated to biological evolution. They form one complete view of origins and are referred to as evolution by main stream sources like NASA and the NSF. They use distinguishing terms like biological evolution, chemical evolution, planetary evolution, stellar evolution cosmic evolution.

Biological evolution refers to the development of life. Chemical evolution refers to the origin of life. Planetary evolution refers to formation and development of planetary bodies. Stellar evolution refers to the formation, development and death of stars. Cosmic evolution refers to the beginning, development and possible end of the universe. Some times this by itself refers the entire Big Bang to man concept.
Note that these are all labeled evolution so it is not inappropriate to refer to them all collectively as Evolution its proponents as Evolutionists. The terms Evolution and Evolutionists are often used by Creationists simply do to a lack of better terms.

I have also used the terms General Evolution and General Evolution theory to help avoid confusion.


Saturday, October 29, 2011

The Science of Chemistry an Introduction

Chemistry is the field of science that is the study of the interactions of atoms to form molecules and their properties. Chemistry go back to before known civilization with fire and metal work. The book of Genesis in the Bible tells us that metal work goes back to Tubal-cain who lived before the Flood. Modern Chemistry grew out of Alchemy and its search to turn metals like lead into gold and the so called elixir of life. Chemistry acquired much from Alchemy particularly its affinity research and experimentation. Once Chemistry broke from Alchemy it lead to an explosion of knowledge about the nature and structure of matter.

Chemistry starts with individual atoms of different elements such as hydrogen, carbon and oxygen. These atoms then come together to form molecules such as water which is made of one oxygen atom getting together with two hydrogen atoms, methane which is made of one carbon atom getting together with four hydrogen atoms and carbon dioxide which is made of two oxygen atoms getting together with one carbon atom. These are all different substances with different properties.

The Periodic Table is a list of the chemical elements organized by recurring properties. The information about each element included varies but often includes element’s name, atomic number, symbol, and atomic weight. It is a vary use full took in Chemistry and one the most recognizable things associated with Chemistry.

Chemical reactions are the process by which atoms come together or are rearranged to form new molecules. There are two main types of chemical reactions. Endothermic reactions which use heat energy in forming new molecules and exothermic reactions which release heat energy in forming new molecules. Exothermic reactions are some times explosive which is a common danger in Chemistry.

The two main fields of chemistry are organic chemistry and inoganic chemistry, Organic chemistry which is chemistry based on the element Carbon and may or may not involve life and inorganic chemistry which is chemistry not based on the element Carbon.

In conclusion chemistry is a major field of science and it is the most experiment based field of science. Chemistry embodies the ideal of science stated in the scientific method more than any other field of science.

Friday, October 28, 2011

How Neutrinos Going Faster than Light Posses no Problem for the Theory of Relativity.

The recent report by CERN that they measured neutrinos going faster than the speed of light by about 20 parts per million has made quite a stir. Given that the speed of light is 299,792,458 m/s these neutrinos were going 6 km/s faster than light which could easily be an experimental error.

It would not be a problem for Special Relativity since not traveling at or faster than the light only applies to particles with a real non zero rest mass. A particle like a photon that has a zero rest mass travels at the speed of light. Particles that travel faster than light have been speculated for years under the name tachyons. Tachyons would have a negative imaginary rest mass giving it a real non zero mass at speeds above the speed of light. It would however be incapable of being decelerated to the speed of light below it.

Also quantum effects like quantum tunneling provided another way around the light barrier by allowing particles to instantly skip over an area of space without actually going through it while traveling sub light through the space it does go through thus not violating Special Relativity. 

Thursday, October 27, 2011

The Science of Life Called Biology

Biology is the science that studies life and living organisms. Life is that which undergo metabolism, grows and reproduce. A living cell is the basic functional unit of life. An organism is a contiguous living system.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the information storage device of living cells. Amazingly DNA is actually a digitally encoded information storage system and the compact encoded information storage system known to exist. There is no known place of higher information density than in DNA.

Living cell are the most basic functional unit of life and but despite this they are still highly complex organized systems of information, structure, molecular machines and much more. Each cell has a level of complexity similar to a city but possesses more organization making even the simplest living cell more complex and organized than any man made machine.  

Single-cell life includes organisms that are made of only one cell. Examples include bacteria, single cell animals and single celled plants such as blue green algae. Multi-cellular life includes organisms consisting of multiple cells usually billions such as plants animals and people.

No mater how the process is described there is essentially only two possible origins for life: A naturalistic origin called abiogenesis or a supernaturally intelligently designed origin. Other suggestions don’t actually solve the problem but merely move it some place else in the Universe.

Abiogenesis has the problem of overcoming the overwhelming gap in organized complexity between a living cell and the chemical constituents that make up a cell. Furthermore no natural process actually demonstrated to exist can accomplish the task but known natural processes indicate that it can not happen. Going from non living chemicals to a living cell requires reducing entropy by an immense amount and statistical thermodynamics shows that natural processes tend to go towards increased entropy; which is the opposite direction of that needed for abiogenesis. Now adding energy can decrease entropy it only does so if applied in a sufficiently organized manner and no known natural process can apply energy in a sufficiently organized manner to achieve abiogenesis suggesting that abiogenesis is impossible. 

A supernaturally intelligently designed origin of life does not have these problems.  First of all it is known that intelligents can create complex organized systems because humans do so. Second it is known that intelligents can encode a functioning genome because human scientists have done so. Intelligents does have a sufficient degree of organized complexity to create a living cell. Furthermore the intelligents that started life in the universe would have to be from out side it and thus would be supernatural.

Evolutionists will often claim that evolution is just change over time in the inherited traits found in a population. If this were really all that was meant by evolution there would be no issue since creationists agree that there is change over time in the inherited traits of a population.

The real dispute is with the idea that observed variations can start with one cell and produce all life found on earth including man. Going from microbe to man requires adding a lot of information by nothing but than mutations and natural selection. The Evolutionist argument is that given enough time mutations and natural selection can produce any thing, however such large degrees of change has never actually been observed. They are however a necessary assumption for a totally naturalistic origin of current living systems.

Wednesday, October 26, 2011

Carbon Dioxide Pollution Myth

Based on the presumption of global warming the Environmental Protection Agency has decreed carbon dioxide to be a dangerous pollutant and have started regulating it accordingly. This is totally stupid since the notion of carbon dioxide being an air pollutant could not be more absurd because carbon dioxide is a naturally occurring atmospheric gas that is used by plants and produced by people and animals. Furthermore plants thrive on higher levels of carbon dioxide. It poses no danger to people or animals  because we breathe it in and out in every breath of your life with no affects.

When you look at other planets carbon dioxide is is shown to the most natural atmospheric gas for terrestrial planetary. There are three terrestrial planets in the Solar system with substantial atmospheres two of them Mars and Venus have predominately carbon dioxide atmospheres. Even Earth would have a nitrogen / carbon dioxide atmosphere if plants did not produce lots of free oxygen. So once again the idea of dioxide as a pollutant is absurd.

So isn’t climate change or global warming or what ever the name of the week may be dagerous? Now if you ignore the fact that the computer models used to support man caused global warming make the thermodynamically impossible assumption that as the global temperature raises the amount of heat lost to space is reduced and if you ignore Climate Gate which shows that climate data has been manipulated. Even if you ignore all this and take the proponents of global warming at their word, they are only predicting a rise in temperature comparable to that of the Medieval Warm Period. The Medieval Warm Period was actually beneficial allowing the Vikings to reach America and helping Europe recover from the black plaque and producing increased food production and prosperity.  So once again carbon idea of dioxide being a pollutant is absurd.

So why did the EPA take such a ludicrous step? The answer is Cap and Trade. President Obama could not get congress to pass Cap and Trade; a scam that would enrich those behind the plan at the expense of the U.S. economy. After congress refused to pass Cap and Trade seeing it as a job killer during a time of high unemployment President Obama used the EPA to do get it by way of regulation. The EPA ruling carbon dioxide as a dangerous pollutant is President Obama’s way of doing this.


Tuesday, October 25, 2011

Moving Things with Force

Force is that which causes a free body to undergo acceleration.

There are four fundamental  forces in Nature. Gravity which is the mutual attraction of all matter in the universe it is what holds you to the Earth.  Electromagnetism which is the mutual attraction and repulsion of charged partials. The weak nuclear force is that which regulates types of nuclear decay such as Bata decay by overcoming the strong nuclear force. The strong nuclear force is the binding force that holds the atomic nucleus together against the tendency of positively charged protons.

Force causes mater to accelerate which is the main function of force by definition. It can be used to overcome other forces such as friction gravity. Force also holds things together since the electromagnetic force holds an object together including your body and the strong nuclear force holds atomic nuclei together. It can break things apart such as bombs or the force resulting from ramming two things together which can cause them to shatter and the peaces to fly apart.

Regardless of its source force causes acceleration. Force can also stop acceleration by resisting another force. Force holes thing together so force does indeed bind us together so it looks like Ben Kenobi got it partly right. Force makes our existence possible.

Monday, October 24, 2011

The Interpretations of Quantum Physics

The following interpretations are theories to explain what is really going on behind Quantum Mechanics. Each theory has unique basic concepts and they are not necessarily mutually exclusive since there is some overlap of concepts.

Schrödinger's cat is a thought experiment involving placing a cat in a sealed box with a vile of poison that would kill the cat if broken, a radioactive material and a gaiter counter set to drop a hammer on the vile of poison if it detects a radiometric decay event. The cat is later observed it is found to be ether alive or dead and each these interpretation has a different description of the state of the cat before it is observed.

Accirding to the Copenhagen interpretation a quantum particle does not in any one state but exists in all of it’s possible states at once. A soon as a quantum particle is observed it is essentially forced into one of the possible states and that is the state that is actually observed. Since it may be forced into a different state each time is why quantum particles behave erratically. The state of a particle being in all possible states at once is called an object's coherent superposition. When an object is observe the superposition collapses the object is forced into one of the states of its wave function. Schrödinger's cat i s seen as both dead and alive at the same time until actually observed. Ultimately the only thing that really matters are the experimental results it does not really seek to explain what it happening behind the experimental results. Currently it is the most popular interpretation, but it is losing ground.

The consistent histories interpretation was put forward by Robert Griffiths in 1984. It works backwards from the result of an experiment and says that only a few possible histories are consistent with quantum mechanics and that Quantum mechanics simply predicts the probabilities of various alternative histories Schrödinger's cat is either alive or dead but not  both Quantum mechanics just gives the probability of which it may be. This idea is not very popular because it still doesn't explain how a particle can go through two slits and interfere with itself and it is considered by some to be pretty much the same as Copenhagen.

The Transactional interpretation quantum mechanical waves as stand waves in space time that constructively interfere were the particle is  and destructively interfere every place else. These waves go both forward and backward in time. There is an "exact canceling" of waves so that is no "net" energy travels backwards in time. In the case of Schrödinger's cat tt is alive until the interference patterns line up in the sample to result in a decay event.

The Bohm interpretation or pilot-wave theory as it is also called depicts the quantum wave guides the particle. It is totally deterministic and good at explaining quantum phenomenon but requires a large number of hidden variables that can not be directly measured. The hidden variables have the side affect of rendering the interpretation untestable. Schrödinger's cat is alive until one the pilot-waves in the sample to causes a decay event.

The many-worlds interpretation sees the world as constantly splitting off into multiple universes in which every possible quantum event occurs. This fits perfectly with Evolution even the most improbable events occurred in some of these universes. With Schrödinger's cat the universe keeps spitting off into each alternative in one the cat lives and in the other dies. They both happen in different quantum universes. There is no evidence for it since the alterative worlds would be forever out of reach. While quantum interference between adjacent worlds has been suggested, the possible evidence for it. Successful interpretation of single particle interference is not unique to the Many-worlds interpretation. So acceptance of this interpretation is purely philosophical and not scientific since it can not be tested.

With the consciousness causes collapse interpretation consciousness causes collapses the quantum mechanical waves as a resuly of observation. There is supporting evidence for this though the evidence is not exclusive to this interpretation. It is compatible with General Intelligent Design as well.  This supporting evidence comes from the human brain. It turns out that synaptic activity in the brain requires quantum tunneling on demand. This shows some degree of control by the mind of quantum wave functions.  Thus view works with both New Age / Hinduism, and the Christian world view. With New Age / Hinduism it provides a way for the mind to interact with the world beyond the five senses. With the Christian world view, since God is the ultimate mind it provides a model for his interaction with our world.  Schrödinger's cat would be both alive and dead until observed then the mind of the observer would collapse the wave function choosing one or the other. It is similar to the Copenhagen interpretation in this regard.

General Intelligent Design also known as General Grand Unification (GGU) sees the waves and their collapse results from intelligent agents that determine the states resulting from the waves' collapse. These intelligent agents could be one or more intelligent beings or mechanisms preprogrammed by an intelligent being.  This is supported by evidence of synaptic activity in the brain requiring quantum tunneling on demand showing some degree of intelligent control of quantum wave functions. This interpretation fits well with the Christian world view. The idea of an intelligence controlling the universe at its fundamental level fits well with God as described in the Bible. In the case of Schrödinger's cat, the cat is a live until the controlling intelligent agent decides to cause a decay event to takes place and then the cat dies.

Theew is a demonstraitablre relationship between the mind and Quantum Mechanics that provides evidence in support for the last two interpretations consciousness causes collapse and General Intelligent Design. It turns out that the synaptic barriers of dendrite brain cells are too thick for nerve signals to classically cross. This means that nerve signals need to use Quantum tunneling to cross the dendrite synaptic barrier. The odds of the nerve signal tunneling across the dendrite synaptic barrier are 1 chance in  10,000,000,  Yet for our brains to function these tunneling events need to occur on demand this is evidence for the mind being able to control quantum phenomenon and against the naturalistic model of the mind as well.

In conclusion there are many ways of interpreting Quantum Mechanics. Acceptance or rejection of each often has more to do with philosophy than science. each fits better with some philosophical views than others and each interpretation differs in how it sees the fundamental nature of reality.

Friday, October 21, 2011

Matter in Physics

Matter:is anything that has mass and occupies volume. It is the general term for the substance of which all physical objects are made. Mass is in the generally sense it is the amount of matter in an object. It is the term for two properties of matter that are equal in value: inertial mass gravitational mass. Inertial Mass is the resistance of a body to acceleration when responding to force. Gravitational Mass is  the property of an object that determines the strength of its gravitational field and its reaction to gravity.

The existence of a relationship between the inertial and gravitational mass of an object is evident from the fact that they have same the value. However General Relativity shows that inertial and gravitational mass are two aspects of the same thing. Special Relativity shows that an objects mass is equivalent to the amount of energy an object contains.

There are three main states of matter with distinctions based on differences in bulk properties. They form a triad with each one able change directly to the other two. Other forms are called states exist but they mainly are variations of these three. Solids have a definite volume and definite shape. Liquids have a definite volume but no definite shape. Gas has no definite volume or shape. Plasma is commonly called the fourth State of Matter. It is an ionized gas where electrons have been freed their atoms; usually by heat. It is mainly an extreme form of gas with all defining characteristics of a gas that is no definite volume or shape. It is the most common form of normal matter.

Normal Matter is composed of atoms. Atoms are a nucleus; made of protons and neutrons; with electrons around it. This form of matter in what we commonly experience. Matter makes up everything around us, everything we see, everything we touch and even our bodies.

Matter is one of the three main parts of the Universe Space, Time and Mass. (matter) Relativity shows them to be inter-related in that space and time are so interrelated that they form a single entity called space-time. Furthermore mass warps space-time forming gravity and the motion of mass contracts both space and time. In common experience matter is what makes up objects around us and Physics has shown that it to be a lot more. Matter is a fundamental part of the universe.

Thursday, October 20, 2011

Motion in Physics How it Moves

Motion is the change in an object’s location of with respect to time.

Strait line motion is the most basic form of motion involving strait ling notion with no force involved thus no acceleration and a constant velocity. Circular motion is motion around a central point it results from a force being applied to an object at a right angle to the objects motion such as gravity keeping a satellite in orbit is a good example.

Relativity theory shows that all motion is relative since it can only be measured relative to a given observer. These measurements are also reversible such that if I see someone moving a given direction at a given speed, he sees me going the opposite direction at the same speed.

Motion is describes the changing of location of an object. Motion can be both strait and curved. It can only be described relative to a chosen point of reference. Motion is how we get from place to place.

Wednesday, October 19, 2011

Quantization of Quantum Mechanics

Quantization is the situation where physical quantities such as position, energy and momentum can only have certain discrete values. In free empty space these values are continuous but if a particle is bound to an area of space these properties can only have certain discrete values. The energy contained in a given frequency of electromagnetic waves is quantized in that it always has the same value at the same frequency. The electromagnetic energy is found in discrete packet called photons.

The quantization of the energy of an electron inside an atom explains much of the behavior of atoms such as why atoms emit only discrete frequencies of light. An electron that is in a low orbit of an atom can absorb a photon causing the electron  to jump to a higher orbit. The electron then emits a photon jumping back to the lower orbit.

The quantization of space-time is based on two of Max Planck’ natural units that are based on five universal physical constants: Gravitational constant, Reduced Planck constant, Speed of light in a vacuum, Coulomb constant, and Boltzmann's constant  The two with physical significance are Planck Length and Planck Time are the smallest possible measurements of space-time according our current understanding of the laws of Physics because of the  uncertainty principle when a plied to these scales. This suggests that time and space themselves are Quantized.

Planck Length is the smallest measurement of length that has any meaning with in the laws of physics as we understand them today. The value of Planck Length is1.616 252 × 10−35 m

Planck Time is the amount of time it takes a photon to cross a Planck Length. It is the smallest measurement of time that has any meaning with in the laws of physics as we understand them today. The value of Planck Time is 5.391 24 × 10−44 s
Quantization requires physical quantities like position, energy and momentum to have discrete values explaining much of what goes on in side atom and based on our current understanding of the laws of physics it suggest that time and space are quantized.

Tuesday, October 18, 2011

The Work of Energy

Energy is the ability of a system to do work. Special Relativity shows that energy has mass and that the mass all matter is a result of energy, so that all substance is based on energy.

The 1st Law of Thermodynamics states that the energy in any interaction is conserved. The result is that is the total amount of energy in the universe is constant. It is also stated as energy can not be created or destroyed but it can change forms.

Below is a list of common types of energy
  1. Heat energy is the energy associated with the temperature of an object.
  2. Light energy is the energy associated with visible light.
  3. Electrical energy is the energy associated with an electric current.
  4. Chemical energy is the energy associated with the reactions involving molecules.
  5. Nuclear energy is the energy associated with reactions involving atomic nuclei.
  6. Kinetic energy is the energy associated with motion.
  7. Potential energy is the energy of a system based on its position or condition. Stored energy.
  8. Rest mass energy id tThe energy of an object that is not in motion. E= mc2
Energy is one of the three main parts of the Universe space, time and mass and relativity shows them to be inter-related. Space and time are so interrelated that they form a single entity. Furthermore mass warps space-time forming Gravity and the motion of mass contracts both space and time. 

In conclusion in common experience energy is what moves us and allows us to move thing. Physics has shown it to be a lot more. It is a fundamental part of the universe.

Monday, October 17, 2011

Quantum Nonlocality its every ware

Quantum Nonlocality is the phenomenon by which measurements made at a subatomic level necessarily refutes the notions of local realism. The basic principle is that particles of matter are not restricted to local interactions. They can have interactions outside their local system with no limit on distance.
A cording to Bell's Theorem developed by John Stewart Bell shows that no physical theory of local hidden variables can ever reproduce all of the predictions of Quantum Mechanics. This does leave open the possibility of non-local hidden variables.

The implications are that subatomic particles clearly exhibit non-local behavior showing that our notions of location do not apply at the fundamental levels of reality. Quantum Nonlocality creates a link between the physical and metaphysical.

Quantum Entanglement: Spook Action at a Distance

Quantum Entanglement is a phenomenon in which the quantum states of two or more objects have to be described with reference to each other, even though the individual objects may be separated in space. Einstein called it “Spook action at a distance”  This results in a correlation between the observable physical properties of the systems such that a change in one object causes an instantaneous change in the other.

Because of Special Relativity  it is generally thought that classical information from being sent faster than light by this means. This is because the two particles need to be near each other to become entangled, or they need an intermediate particle, which has to be near one particle and then the other. But this would not prevent  the possibility of sending information faster than light in cases where the sender and receiver were originally near each other and then separated such as s apace ship leaving Earth and using such a means for communications. Quantum entanglement is a quantum effect that has no parallel in Classical mechanics.

Saturday, October 15, 2011

A review of the creation science website Genesis Science Mission

Genesis Science Mission is an interactive Creation Science web site. It uses video and interactive programming to present Creation Science and science as a whole in an integrated package, Many of the articles, videos and interactive programs present scientific principle with little if any reference to creation science to provide a proper scientific back ground for Creation Science.

A review of the creation science website Genesis Mission

This is a largely a text and image companion site to Genesis Science Mission. The material is formatted so as to present Creation Science in a way that integrates Creation Science with science as a whole. This is done to show a complete picture. Many of the articles present scientific principle with little if any reference to creation science so as to provide the scientific back ground for Creation Science.

Friday, October 14, 2011

Quantum Tunneling from Quantum Mechanics

Quantum tunneling is the process by which a particle gets across a barrier that it can not classically pass. Quantum Tunneling is related to Wave-particle duality because it results from the wave nature of a particle. The probability of the particle getting through the barrier drops exponentially with the thickness of the barrier.

When the wave comes in contact with the barrier most of it bounces off the carrier but a small amount passes through the barrier; but that amount decays exponentially with the thickness of the barrier.  Such that the amplitude of the initial wave increases then the amplitude of the wave on the opposite side of the barrier increases. If the barrier thickness increases, the amplitude of the wave on the opposite side of the barrier decreases. If the energy of the initial wave increases, (wavelength decreases) the amplitude of the wave on the opposite side of the barrier increases. If the waves energy greater than that of the barrier it will all pass through the barrier. With a longer wavelength For particles most of them bounce off while a few instantly get through.

Quantum tunneling is theoretically valid at the macroscopic but the odds of it occurring are extremely small. For example there is a non zero probability that you could run your car into a brick wall an suddenly find yourself safely on the other side. However please don’t try it because the odds that it will happen are so small as to be impossible by any reasonable definition.

Tunneling gets subatomic particles across barriers they normally can not cross. The number of particles that gets across the barrier drops exponentially with the barrier thickness. The number of particles that gets across the barrier increases with the energy of the particle. Quantum tunneling is a purely quantum effect. It has no counter part in Classical mechanics. It could theoretically occur on the macroscopic scale but the odds are too small to ever see it happen.

Superconduction which is a Quantum Effect

Superconduction is the property that occurs in certain materials below a characteristic temperature where they have an electrical resistance of exactly zero.

Superconduction was discovered in 1911 but it took years to find a theory that allowed it to be understood. When a critical temperature is reached for a particular substance the electrical resistance will suddenly drops to zero.  The basic theory is that at the critical temperature electrons become coupled over a ranger of about 1,000 X the spacing of the conductor’s lattice with a binding energy that is the result of vibration that the electrons cause in the lattice. Called cooper pairs, the coupled electrons effectively becomes a boson and condense into the ground state. The result is that each coupled electron helps the other over come any resistance encountered from the lattice.

The Meissner Effect is where a magnetic field is expelled from a superconductor during the transition to the superconducting state that is caused by electric currents generated near its surface by the applied field. The magnetic field of these currents cancels out the applied magnetic field within the superconductor. This causes the magnetic levitation associated with superconductors.

Superconductivity is a purely quantum effect that has no counter part in classical physics. It’s most commonly known effect is magnetic levitation. It is one of two purely quantum effects that are seen on a macroscopic scale.

Thursday, October 13, 2011

Atoms, They Makeup Every Thing

Atoms are the basic unit of matter that consists of a dense, central positively charged nucleus surrounded by a cloud of negatively charged electrons.

The Rutherford Gold Foil Experiment was conducted in 1911 by Hans Geiger and Ernest Marsden. It Involved shooting alpha particles (He nuclei) at a gold foil to observe how they are scattered by the gold on a screen. It probed the structure of the Atom.  

If atoms were a solid mass few if any alpha particles would get through. If negative electron were embedded in a thin positive mass all of the alpha particles would get through. However most of the alpha particles get through with some being scattered by the small positive nucleus. Rutherford Conclusion was that the atoms is mostly empty space with a small positive nucleus surrounded by electrons scattered through out the surrounding space. In such a model the electron can not stand still since if they did they fall into the nucleus

This led to efforts to model the atom as a solar system called the planetary model with electrons orbiting the nucleus like planets around a star. The problem with the planetary model is that electrons are charged particles and an accelerating charge emits light loosing energy and this would cause the electron to spiral into the nucleus.

Broglie had shown that particles have wave like propertied. Bohr went on to show that these waves could be bent into orbits like those expected for an electron with the result that electrons can only occupy those orbits with exactly a whole number of wavelengths. In these orbits the waves are add together with constructive interference. If an orbit has a fractional number of wavelengths the wave would destructively interfere and not persist so an electron can not occupy such an obit. The result is that that electrons jump from orbit to orbit emitting photons when going to a lower orbit and absorbing photons are when going to a higher orbit. It turns out that transitions between the possible electron orbits, matches the spectral lines that are actually observed in hydrogen. This was a major step in development quantum Mechanics.

Studying elements other hydrogen included the effects of multiple electrons resulted in the electron orbital five of which are shown above. They are places in an atom where electrons can actually be found. The shapes of these orbitals were originally found mathematically and they have long been viewed as purely mathematical abstractions that were never expected to be seen. Physics students have long been told this however field-emission electron microscopy has changed this. he imaging of actual electron orbitals was a surprise but it vividly shows the accuracy of Quantum Mechanics.

Superfluids a Quantum Effect

A superfluid is a liquid that has no viscosity and infinite thermal conductivity.

Superfluids appears as normal liquids but flow without friction past any surface allowing it to continue to circulate over obstructions and through pores in its container do only to its own inertia.

The atoms in a superfluid all exist in the same quantum state so they all have the same momentum such that if one moves they all move allowing superfluids to move without friction even through the tiniest of cracks. Superfluid helium will flow up the sides of a jar and over the top. Superfluity is a purely quantum effect that has no counter part in classical physics. It is one of two purely quantum effects that are seen on a macroscopic scale.

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Quantum Mechanics and The Principle of the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

The Uncertainty Principle is the principle of Quantum Mechanics that there is a limit on the accuracy of simultaneous measurement of physical quantities like a particle's position and momentum. The Uncertainty Principle was published by Werner Heisenberg in 1927  being based on the fact that the light needed to observe a subatomic particle will disturb thay particle making measurements uncertain though it goes way beyond that.

Planck's constant is too small for the uncertainty principle to show up in the macroscopic world even though it is significant in the subatomic world. It results in the fact that the more accurately one measures a particle's position the less accurately one can measure its momentum and one measures a particle's momentum the less accurately one can measure its position. This does not happen just because the act of measurement disturbs the system; which it only does sometimes; it is actually related to Wave-particle duality. The same principle applies to other quantities like energy and time.

More recent developments has vhanged the debate between determinism and freewill. The idea is that the uncertainty principle is a possible avenue for allowing for freewill in neurology. The evidence involves quantum, mechanical processes like tunneling being involved in synapse activity.

The Uncertainty Principle shows us that we are limited in our ability to make measurements of the subatomic world. It shows that there are limits to our possible knowledge about t
he universe.

Tuesday, October 11, 2011

Wave-particle duality from Quantum Mechanics

Wave-Particle Duality is the ptindiples that light and matter exhibit the properties of both waves and particles. This is a key concept of quantum mechanics shows that subatomic particles have a dual nature that is some times they act like particles, exhibiting properties like scattering and at other times they behave as waves, exhibiting properties like interference and diffraction.

The photoelectric effect is the case where photons of light eject electrons from a sheet of metal like interacting partials are supposed to behave. The Davission-Germer experiment has an electron beam is aimed a nickel crystal in whith the resulting scattering has peeks and valise do to diffraction.

The wave length of a particle's wave is l = h / p.  Where l is the wave length, p is momentum  h is Planck's constant  Now this relationship is just the first part of wave particle duality. The actual wave function is denoted by Y (Psi).  While the exact formula varies with the situation, the wave function is always a complex number. It is related to the probability of finding the particle at a given point in pace.

The probability of finding a partial at a given point in space is denoted by |Y(x)|2 also denoted by Y* Y  where the complex number is  Y = A + iB and the complex conjugate: Y* = A – iB The over all space the probability density = 1.

In conclusion matter behaves as both particles and waves. The wave nature is related to the probability of finding a particle at a given location at a given time.

Monday, October 10, 2011

The Physics of Newton's Third Law of Motion

Newton's 3rd law states that for every action there is an opposite and equal reaction. Put another way when you push on an object it pushes you back.

The starting principle of Newton's 3rd law is the law of conservation of momentum The law of conservation of momentum states  that the total change in a system’s motion to be zero. As a result moving a mass requires moving another mass in the opposite direction.

This law is commonly seen in rockets as the flame that is seen coming from the bottom of the rocket is propellant mass that is being ejected from the engines. This mass provides the action whose reaction pushes the rocket forward. Jets work on same basic principle but the main differ deference between a jet and a rocket is that jets take in air as part of their propellant mass making them more efficient than rockets since they are nor required to carry all that mass onboard.

The basic concept of Newton's 3rd law is that two masses push on each other with equal force. Equal mass will move away at the same speed. When one mass is smaller the other and if the force is kept the same, the smaller mass moves away faster and the heavier mass moves at the same speed as before. If one keeps the masses the same as in the last example but this time the force is larger then they both fly apart faster. The smaller mass still moves much faster than the larger mass.

One thing that is a little counter interactive is the fact that when a car that is being driven down the road, the Earth is actually being pushed in the opposite direction. To be fair this affect is extremely small but it is sill not zero and the traffic that is going opposite direction averages out to zero net force. It gets even stranger since even when you are just walking around you are actually pushing the Earth in the opposite direction. Once again it is still an extremely small, in fact much smaller than in a car; but still not zero. Furthermore all the people and animals in the world the affect will still average out to be zero.

Like wise when a planet moves around its star the planet pulls back on the star causing it to wobble slightly. This is a main way that extra Solar planets are detected.  

Newton's 3rd law of Motion boils down to the fact that when one object pushes on another object, the second object pushes back. It is an important part of every change in

Saturday, October 8, 2011

Here is Clear Scientific Proof that the Supernatural Exists

It has been repeatedly claimed that there is no scientifically valid evidence for the supernatural; however this claim has been in the absence of a scientific definition of supernatural. It a previous article (A Scientific Definition of Supernatural ) I made the case that a supernatural event would then be any event that has a caused out side the Universe.

Based on this definition there is a scientifically recognized even that without question has to be a supernatural event. The prime evidence for this event it the fact you exist to read this article. The supernatural event I am referring to is the beginning of Universe. The fact that the universe had a beginning is a well established scientific fact.

Now regardless of how the Universe actually began it had to be started from outside itself. This is evident from the fact that until the universe existed there was no inside the universe and so the cause that started the universe had to be out side of it.

The fore the beginning of the Universe by definition has to be a supernatural event.

Friday, October 7, 2011

Here Is a Declaration of a Scientific Definition of the Supernatural

Is science capable of considering and studying the supernatural? Answering this question requires there to be a scientific definition of supernatural. Unfortunately no official scientific definition of supernatural has ever been established. The reason this is the fact that there is the desire on the part of the scientific establishment to keep any consideration of the supernatural out of science. 

To find a scientific definition of supernatural it is necessary to start with a standard dictionary definition of supernatural.  According to The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language the primary definition of supernatural is “Of or relating to existence outside the natural world.”

Since the natural world consists of ther entire universe, it is logical to rephrase this definition as “Of or relating to existence outside the Universe.” This makes for a perfect scientific definition of supernatural.

So here is a perfect scientific definition of supernatural.

Supernatural: Of or relating to existence outside the Universe.
Supernatural event: Aany event that has a caused out side the Universe.

Now while this definition allows for an influence by a supernatural intelligence such as God, it does not intrinsically require that there be any intelligents involved an would include totally mechanistic causes from out side the universe.

Newton's Second Law of Motion and Physics

Newton's 2nd Law of Motion states that a mass acted on by a force undergoes acceleration in the direction of the force, with a magnitude inversely proportional to the mass and proportional to the force.

Newton's 2nd Law shows that a force being applied to a mass produces a steady increase in speed. Furthermore decreasing the mass and increasing the force produces a faster increase in speed and increasing the mass and decreasing the force produces a slower increase in speed.

All changes in motion are based on Newton's 2nd Law including changes in speed and direction. It is indeed fundamental to understanding of motion since without it changes in motion can not be properly understood.

Thursday, October 6, 2011

The Important law of Physics Newton's first Law of Motion

Newton's 1st Law of Motion states that a body will remain in motion or remain at rest unless it is acted on by an out side force. This law is also known as the law of inertia because inertia is the resistance to changes in motion. Newton's first Law shows that an object continues to move without changes in its motion until a force is imparted on it.

Every movement we make uses of Newton's 1st Law. Without the fist law of motion controlling motion is probably not even be possible. All possible methods of controlling motion depend on the first law. The 1st law of motion shows that motion remains the same without an outside force. We use it in every move we make.

Wednesday, October 5, 2011

Dimensions are Directions

Dimensions are directions that are mutually perpendicular to each other. The depiction of individual dimensions is as an axis lines that show the direction of that particular dimension.

Building dimensions begins with a point of zero dimensions. This point can be expanded into one dimension forming a line. The lined can then be expanded into two dimensions so as to form a plane. Finally the plain can be expanded into three dimensions forming a space. This process can continue indefinitely with no theoretical limit to the number of dimensions. In spite of our existence has only three spacial dimensions any number of dimensions is theoretically possible.

In physics dimensions have been classically used to refer to space however Spacial Relativity added time as a dimension. Cosmological Relativity adds cosmic expansion velocity as a dimension. String theory uses from 10 - 26 dimensions and its child M theory uses 11 dimensions. Mathematically there in no limit to the number of possible dimensions from zero to infinite dimensions. In fact Nth dimensional modeling is useful for dealing with any set of properties as if they were physical dimensions.

While dimensions are primarily used to describe space and time though some physical theories use more than three spacial dimensions specifically string theory. They can also be used to model the distribution of non spacial properties.

Tuesday, October 4, 2011

Space is Not Just Nothing

The three dimensional extent in which objects and events occur, with a relative position to other objects and events is called space. In a more general sense space can refer to an nth dimensional hyper-volume. 

Often illustrated by 3 lines representing the three dimensions of space the linese the axis of a 3d graph. In 3d space you can move in 3 directions forwards and backwards; up and down and left to right. General Relativity depicts space and time as a fabric that can be warped, bent, twisted, stretched and contracted. Quantum Mechanics describes subatomic particles coming and going even in a vacuum. Space is not empty, it is not nothing. Yes I know this is a double negative however empty space is normally thought of as nothing but it is something.

Basic SI unit – meter (m) which is the distance traveled by light in a vacuum in 1/299,792,458 of a second. The most common methods of measuring space are rulers but odometers are another common way of measuring distance and there by space. Other methods include bouncing light, radio waves, or sound off of an object using the return time to measure distance. These include radar and sonar. Parallax uses geometry to measure distance it is used in Astronomy and land surveying.

Distance and position must be measured according to some standard. The standard has to be a chosen point in space. The point is selected by ether convenience or convention with out such a starting point determining distance and position is impossible..

Space is one of the three main parts of the Universe space, time and mass. Relativity shows them to be inter-related with space and time are so interrelated that they form a single entity.  Intern mass warps space-time forming gravity and motion of mass contracts both space and time. Based on common experience space is basically where you are. You are at a particular point in space relative to other objects. Physics however has shown it to be a lot more. It is a fundamental part of the universe.

Monday, October 3, 2011

Time for Physics.

Time is the observed sequences of events. In physics it is seen as a 4th dimension

The basic SI unit for time is the second. Its duration is defined as a 9,192,631,770 periods of the radiation of the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the cesium133 atom. It was originally defined based on a day.

The week is the only time unit not based on an astronomical period being based on the Jewish Sabbath cycle which is based on the creation week of Genesis 1.

The calendar year is rounded to 365 days with a leap day every 4 years.

According to Special and General Relativity time is a 4th dimension. It is unique in that we only travel through time one way. (forward).

Time is one of the three main parts of the Universe: space, time and mass. Relativity shows them to be inter-related with space and time are so interrelated that they form a single entity.  Mass warps space-time forming gravity and motion of mass contracts both space and time.

The perception of the rate of time is variable but time is always experienced in the same way. We remember the past, we exist in the present and we look forward to the future. In our common experience time is the sequence of events we experience. Physics has shown that it is to be a lot more. It is a fundamental part of the universe.

Saturday, October 1, 2011

An Introduction to the Bible,

The Christian cannon of scripture is called the Bibles. The Bible’s Old Testament is also the cannon of Jewish scripture. The Bible is a collection of 66 books. The Old Testament consists of 39 books and the New Testament consists of 27 books. The Bible is most printed widely distributed book ever both on and off line and it has been translated into more languages than any other book.
The Bible is more than a collection of religious writings. It is not a collection of myths nor a mixture of myth and history. The Bible is consists of history, law, poetry, prophecy, wisdom, doctrine and theology. No other ancient historical document is as well persevered as the Bible since it has been carefully copied from the originals and carefully translated into many languages. The Bible’s historical accounts are unusually honest for ancient historical accounts since it lacks the flattering distortions of leaders found in other cultures. The Bible openly depicts the failings of even the godliest of kings such as David.

The Bible is the most beloved loved book ever written being cherished by millions of Christians who read and live by the Bible. Ironically the Bible is the most heated book ever written since those who hate Christians also tend to hate the Bible. It contuses to exist despite numerous efforts to destroy it by burning it, banning it and attaching its legitimacy

The Bible is the Word of God written by God through human authors through divine inspiration of their vary words making it infallible. God’s preservation of his word explains why it is so well preserved.