Wednesday, February 20, 2013

Chimpanzee and Human DNA not as Similar as Once Thought

The claim that chimpanzee and human genomes are 98% the same has been repeated so off then that most people take it as fact. However not only can this claim be shown to be erroneous by virtue of the fact that chimps have a larger genome with an additional chromosome than humans, It turns out this 98% us based on a part of the two genomes that are the most similar and more recent studies show the differences are much greater.
The result is an overall 70% similarity between the two genomes this means that there is a whopping 30% differences. This is 15 times the 2% difference of the claim 98% similar claim. As result the chimpanzee and human genomes are far more different than commonly claimed. This difference also goes against the idea the Humans have a common ancestor with chimps since the mutation rate would have to be way too high for genetic viability. This is yet another genetic nail in the coffin in General Evolution theory and idea that humans came into existence by any form of evolution.
------ Charles Creager Jr.

Thursday, February 7, 2013

Information Universe and Parallel Universes.


This is part seventeen of the Information Universe series. See the link for part one.


The Information Universe actually makes parallel universes quite easy, since any other information based Universes could simply be other programs that run in parallel to our own. Such parallel universes would have there own time such that you could spend a day in another universe and then come home find 1000 years or more had passed. In addition you could spend years in another universe and then come home to find that no time at had passed here. This may be one area where C.S Lewis may have gotten it right in Chronicles of Narnia.


 Now these parallel universes would most likely not be near duplicates of this one except for a few differences, but they would likely be totally different. If you went to one, you not find a copy of yourself that has a different life but it would be radically different assuming that you could survive there.


It would also be potentially possible that information could be transferred between such universes allowing for travel between them or even the ghostly image of some one in one universe to be seen in another. Places like heaven and hell could even be such parallel universes.


Now it needs to be clear that the Information Universe does not require these parallel universes to exist but it does require that some form of ultimate reality to exist outside our universe where the programming creator of our universe (God) can would exist, this would be what the Bible calls Eternity.


So other information based universes could easily exist but running parallel to ours. They could even effectively occupy the same space as ours since space is ultimately a mathematical entity. Time in each universe could be totally different or they could run in exact parallel to each other. While the Information Universe does not require other information based universes to exist it does require one ultimate reality to exist.






------ Charles Creager Jr.

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Wednesday, February 6, 2013

Geophysics and Creation


Geophysics is the study in physics of the Earth and its environment in space. Geophysics mainly includes studies of the Earth's shape; gravitational field, magnetic field, internal structure, internal composition, plate tectonics, generation of magmas, volcanism and rock formation.
Some times it includes the hydrological cycle; fluid dynamics of the oceans and the atmosphere; electricity and magnetism in the ionosphere and magnetosphere; solar-terrestrial interaction; and similar problems on the Moon and other planets.

Geophysics is at its hart the application of the principles of physics to the Earth and in more recent years other planetary bodies. As we expand our knowledge of worlds other than the Earth this expansion is natural. It is really only cultural inertia with in the scientific community that keeps it from being changed to planetary physics.

There are four areas of geophysics that are of importance to origins, in particular they show problems with the idea of an old Earth.


 Radioactivity is the phenomenon where by an unstable atomic nucleus emits ionizing radiation causing the nucleus to loses energy and rest mass. Radioactivity causes about 80% of the Earth's internal heat, with the main isotopes being potassium40, uranium238, uranium235, and thorium232. While there are many types of nuclear decay there are two main ones found in nature, Alpha decay and Negative Bata decay.

In alpha decay the nucleus ejects an alpha particle. An alpha particle is a helium atomic nucleus consisting of 2 protons and 2 neutrons. The process reduces the atomic number of atom by 2 changing the element.


In negative Beta decay a neutron emits a Beta particle and an electron anti-neutrino to become a proton. Beta particles are actually negatively charged electrons. This process increases the atomic number of the nucleus by one.

For collections of radioactive nuclei there is a characteristic decay rate which is usually designated by the isotopes half-life which is the time needed for half of the isotope to decay. This half-life is independent of the amount of the present isotope because the more atoms of the parent isotope there are the more nuclei will decay in a given unit of time. Nuclear decay is often used in determining the age of a sample however there are assumptions involved in the process. It is especially assumed that the half-life of an isotope is constant.

Accelerated Nuclear Decay is the process by which nuclear decay proceeds at a faster rate than normal. Now small amounts of accelerated nuclear decay have been observed in Bata-decay under some circumstances. While accelerated alpha decay has never been directly observed evidence for it exists in the retention of radiogenic helium by zircon crystals. Accelerated Nuclear Decay would look identical to normal decay but faster. The main argument against the hypothesis that the retention of radiogenic helium by zircon crystals shows substantial accelerated alpha decay is heat. The other common argument is the lack of an observed cause of accelerated alpha decay. However there are theoretical answers to both objections. The real reason for resistance to the hypothesis that the retention of radiogenic helium by zircon crystals shows substantial accelerated alpha decay is the fact that it would drastically reduce radiometric ages. However none of these arguments change the fact that measured helium diffusion rates in zircon crystals are a perfect match to a model showing accelerated alpha decay about six thousand years ago.

Plate Tectonics

The Earth’s crust is divided into segments called plates. These plates are not fixed but they slowly move over the mantel. Where the plates meet they interact in three main ways sliding, spreading and subduction. Subduction is seen as the driving mechanism of Plate Tectonics. When these plates interact the results are Earth quakes and volcanoes.

Plate Tectonics got its start in a book published by Antonio Snider-Pellegrini in 1859 called La Création et ses mystères dévoilés (The Creation and its Mysteries Unveiled). He proposed that all of the continents were once connected together based discovering the same plant fossils in both Europe and the United States. He then found this matching of fossils on all of the continents.


He proposed that the super continent catastrophically broke up resulting in the Flood described in Genesis the first book of the Bible. The catastrophic nature of the process went against uniformitarianism  and this early version of plate tectonics got little support at the time. This image is from The Creation and its Mysteries Unveiled and it shows the continents before and after separation.

The idea of Plate Tectonics was later picked up by Alfred Wegener around 1910. He slowed down Antonio Snider's Catastrophic Plate Tectonics to make it fit evolutionary time scales producing continual drift. This slowed down version of Plate Tectonics became an establishment theory around 1963.

Catastrophic Plate Tectonics was revived by Dr. John R. Baumgardner in the 1990's with support from computer modeling of the Earth's interior.The result is a Scientific description of the Genesis Flood. Modern Catastrophic Plate Tectonics is basically plate tectonics on over drive.


Geomagnetism is the study of the Earth’s magnetic field. It includes the study of the magnetic fields of other planetary bodies as well. The Earth magnetic field is tilted about 11 degrees relative to its rotational axis. At present the magnitude of the Earth magnetic field at the Earth's surface ranges from 0.25 to 0.65 gauss. The Earth’s magnetic field is produced by an electric current in the core. However measurements since 1900 have shown a net loss of field energy of about 5% which is equivalent to a half-life of 1465 years.

The dominant model used to solve this problem called the dynamo theory. The idea is that the current that produces planetary magnetic fields is generated by a self sustaining dynamo, powered by the planet's spin. The result is complex currents in the planets core that causes the field to fluctuate from time to time, and reversing itself. In the case of the Earth this is thought to occur about every 500 - 700 thousand years.
From U.S. Geological Survey: This Dynamic Earth

This theory is illustrated in this manner with dark areas showing the present magnetic field direction and light areas show reverse magnetic field direction. It shows these nice neat strips across the ocean floor, as produced by the theory.


From U.S. Geological Survey: This Dynamic Earth

In Reality the pattern is not so neat and regular, in fact the tendency is for the positive and negative areas to be mixed up and this is the case all over the world. It gets worse when you look vertically where negative and positive are one on top of the other. Actual data seem to be inconsistent with uniformitarian theory, but is consistent with: a rapid spreading coupled with rapid magnetic reversals, a stretching with cracking and a single reversal, temporary local magnetic reversals, and reversals resulting from stress in the rocks.

There are other problems with the dynamo theory. Life would periodically be exposed to deadly solar radiation. It can not explain the existence of the magnetic field of Mercury. It rotates too slowly to have a self sustaining dynamo and so it should not have a magnetic field. Furthermore Mercury’s magnetic field is decaying and quit rapidly.


It can not explain the orientation of the magnetic fields of, Uranus and Neptune. The magnetic axis of each planet is tilted about 60 degrees, with respect to the rotation axis, so that the magnetic poles are near the equator. Further more the source of each planet's field is offset from the center, by about one third of a planetary radius. According to the dynamo theory, the magnetic and rotation axes should nearly always be closely aligned.

Dynamic Decay Theory was developed by Dr. Russell Humphreys; a physicist with the Institute for Creation Research. It uses an alignment of the magnetic fields of the planet's molecules, to jump start the planets magnetic field. It includes fluctuations and possibly even reversals during and shortly after the Genesis Flood thus explaining the mixed up magnetic patterns. Projecting back in time based on magnetic field energy, gives a maximum age for the Earth of 8,700 years.

Dynamic Decay Theory explains the origin of planetary and stellar magnetic fields. The orientation of the magnetic fields of. Uranus and Neptune, both the tilted of about 60 degrees with respect to the rotation axis and the field's source being about one third of a planetary radius offset from the center. The existence of the magnetic field of Mercury, since the field's source is a decaying and the current in its core can not related to spin. Measurements by the Messenger space craft have confirmed that Mercury’s magnetic field is decaying as predicted by Dynamic Decay. The residual magnetism on the Moon and Mars, despite the lack of a planetary magnetic fields. The strength for the magnetic fields of Uranus, Neptune, and the 4 large moons of Jupiter; all fall with in the range predicted by Dynamic Decay Theory.

Lunar Recession

One aspect of Geophysics that gets little attention for its degree of importance is the recession of moon. That’s right moon is slowly getting farther away and slowing the Earth’s rotation in the process. It was first discovered following the Apollo moon landings by bouncing laser off reflectors left behind by astronauts. These reflectors were designed to accurately measure the Earth / Moon distance. The results showed that the moon is getting further away at a rate of 1.5 inches or 3.82 cm per year. Furthermore a day is getting longer by 1.7 milliseconds per day per century.

 Backwards projection based on the observed slowing of the Earth's rotation 

A backwards projection of the number of days in a year based on forces acting on Moon and Earth.

This a backwards projection of the distance of the moon based on forces acting on Moon and Earth

Tis is a backwards projection of  the observed slowing of the Earth's rotation and lunar recession data. The current data is simply plugged into the laws of physics. The result is that the Moon would have been locked in Geosynchronous orbit around the Earth 1.25 billion years ago. This is far short of the 4.5 billion years commonly given for the age of the Earths suggesting that the Earth-Moon system can not be any where near 4.5 billion years old.

The problem is understood by the proponents of a 4.5 billion year old Earth and several solution have been proposed. The problem is that paleontological data claimed as evidence for longer days in the past does not fit with any possible model that allows 4.5 billion years The ultimate response seems to be that the Earth-Moon system is too complicated to get accurate results form such calculations. This is essentially admitting that the problem can not be solve for an Earth-Moon system that is 4.5 billion years old. Which is exactly what would be the case if the Earth-Moon system were indeed much younger than 4.5 billion years.

Friday, February 1, 2013

Huge-LQG Too Large for Cosmological Principle


Huge-LQG is the largest structure ever observed in the universe. It is a group of quasars in  the constellation Leo a whopping 4 billion light years long. This is not only the largest structure ever observed in the universe but it defies the Cosmological Principle. The Cosmological Principle is the assumption is cosmology that on the large scale the Universe is largely the same every place such that we are not in a special place in the universe. The Cosmological Principle has never been proven but had been generally assumed to be true by evolutionary cosmologists because it is so improbable that we would be in a special place in the Universe that is it implies intelligent design in Universe, which goes against absolute naturalism.


Huge-LQG is 1,600 times larger than the 2 million light years between un and the Andromeda Galaxy, the nearest large galaxy to the Milky way.  The reason that  Huge-LQG is a problem for the cosmological principles that it requires the universe to be homogeneous on the large scale such that the universe will look eventually the same from any location. Earlier calculations had indicated that the maximum size possible for a structure in the universe to be can be about 370Mpc. At 423Mpc long, the Sloan Great Wall, discovered in 2003 is just barely consistent with the Cosmological Principle. How ever Huge-LQG is estimated at 1240 mega-parsecs (4 billion light-years) by 640 Mpc and a mass of 6.1 X1018 solar masses making it three times too long longer and two times too wide for Cosmological Principle. When you include the fact that Huge-LQG is unique in the universe is sufficient to effectively disprove the Cosmological Principle.


Because the Cosmological Principle is a central assumption of the Big Bang Cosmology this discovery is also a problem for the Big Bang. It is amazing just to see the Cosmological Principle actually being question.  It needs be noted that Creationists have been challenging the Cosmological Principle for years because when one starts with "In the beginning God," the idea that we are in a special place in the Universe is not longer likely but expected. So Creation Cosmologies predict the existence of something like Huge-LQG.




------ Charles Creager Jr.

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